Tuesday, March 17, 2020
buy custom Descriptive Statistics essay The numbers that are used in the summarizing and describing of data constitute what is called descriptive statistics. Data can be any information collected from a survey, experiment or a historical record. For instance if one is analyzing the birth certificates of children from a given State, then the percentage of certificates given out in that state or the average age of mothers, can constitute the descriptive statistic of the data. Any number that is used in the computation is also taken as a descriptive statistics for the data from the computed statistic. A number of descriptive statistics may be used at once for better description of the data (Lane, 2003). There are various ways in which statistical data can be interpreted. This includes measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. This provides shorthand in the description of the distribution of data. Measures of central tendency include the mean, mode and median. Measures of dispersion are the range, variance and standard deviation (Ryan, 2004). For example in a survey carried out to examine the dominance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a measurement of systolic blood pressure was done twice on each patient to ascertain the reliability of the measures. A calculation of the difference between the measures was done for each of the 10,000 patients and relative distribution of the same plotted. The mean difference was found to be 0 mmHg and standard deviation was 2 mmHg. Since the distribution was symmetrical, it was estimated that 95% of the difference lay within 4 mmHg of the mean, 0. So from this, if a persons measures differ by 4 mmHg then this will be unusual and therefore has a risk of getting a cardiovascular disease. This will call for the necessary measures to be taken in terms of treatmen. Or in the estimation of birth weight that is symmetrically distributed in a population. The proportion of babies who will weigh less than 2000 grams can be calculated. If the newborns mean weight is 3500 grams and standar d deviation is 750 grams, then if there is no other information, 0.025 or 2.5% of the newborns will weigh less than 2000 grams because this is two standard deviations below the mean (Arsham, 2010). Still in the medical world data collection and interpretation should be done very carefully as it is likely to affect the livelihood of others. This is especially in the case of public health whereby governments need to take measures in advance concerning various issues basing their judgment on the interpretation of the current statistics. There are different types of probabilities that can be used, these are; marginal probability, conditional probability, joint probability and union probability. These can be used in different methods such as the classical method of probability, the relative frequency of occurrence and the subjective probability. The most misused probability is the subjective probabilities. They are based on an individuals intuition, feelings or experience. In this world almost every person has an opinion and would like to share it. They are not unethical to use but can be misleading and disastrous to decision makers. This is especially in the medical field where all the actions need to be justified. Operating on intuitions ca n be very risky and might lead to loss of lives. What a person needs to know is that the rules and laws of probability are for the long run (Arjomand, 1996) For example if a coin is tossed, even though we know that the probability of getting a head is 5, the result will not obviously be a head and one can not get a half head. But on several tosses a head will be got. Take for instance an oil prospecting company , suppose the probability that it will strike oil is 10, this means that in the long run, if enough holes are drilled, the company should strike oil in about 10% of the holes. What if the company has just enough money to drill one hole? This means that it will either get a dry hole or strike oil. If this is not put into consideration, the companys decision to drill oil might be disastrous. Classical statistics on the other hand could be used unethically to lure companies or clients into making short-run investments hoping to get something in return when in actual terms the company or client may win or lose. In the case of the oil company, it will not get back 10% by drilling one hole; it will either win or lose (Black, 2009) Conclusion In descriptive statistics there is always a tendency for people to ignore examining data thoroughly by descriptive means. They tend to rush on applying statistical tests on the given data without confirming whether the data is accurate. People involved in dealing with descriptive statistics should therefore always strive to take time to examine descriptively a set of data using different perspectives to get a clear picture of it. This way they will be able to discriminate against much sense and nonsense. The types of probability that exist are the marginal probability, the conditional probability, the joint probability and the union probability. The classical method of assigning probability relies on events prior or before they take place. The relative frequency of occurrence assigns probability basing on empirically derived data or historical data. Subjective probabilities on the other hand rely on the knowledge, feelings and personal experiences in assigning probability (Statistics , 2006). Buy custom Descriptive Statistics essay
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 Having ratified the Adams-OnÃ s Treaty in 1821, the United States officially purchased Florida from Spain. Taking control, American officials concluded the Treaty of Moultrie Creek two years later which established a large reservation in central Florida for the Seminoles. By 1827, the majority of the Seminoles had moved to the reservation and Fort King (Ocala) was constructed nearby under the guidance of Colonel Duncan L. Clinch. Though the next five years were largely peaceful, some began to call for the Seminoles to be relocated west of the Mississippi River. This was partially driven by issues revolving around the Seminoles providing sanctuary for escaped slaves, a group that became known as the Black Seminoles. In addition, the Seminoles were increasingly leaving the reservation as hunting on their lands was poor. Seeds of Conflict In an effort to eliminate the Seminole problem, Washington passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 which called for their relocation west. Meeting at Paynes Landing, FL in 1832, officials discussed relocation with the leading Seminole chiefs. Coming to an agreement, the Treaty of Paynes Landing stated that the Seminoles would move if a council of chiefs agreed that the lands in the west were suitable. Touring the lands near the Creek Reservation, the council agreed and signed a document stating that the lands were acceptable. Returning to Florida, they quickly renounced their previous statement and claimed they had been forced to sign the document. Despite this, the treaty was ratified by the US Senate and the Seminoles were given three years complete their move. The Seminoles Attack In October 1834, the Seminole chiefs informed the agent at Fort King, Wiley Thompson, that they had no intention of moving. While Thompson began receiving reports that the Seminoles were gathering weapons, Clinch alerted Washington that force may be required to compel the Seminoles to relocate. After further discussions in 1835, some of the Seminole chiefs agreed to move, however the most powerful refused. With the situation deteriorating, Thompson cut off the sale of weapons to the Seminoles. As the year progressed, minor attacks began occurring around Florida. As these began to intensify, the territory began preparing for war. In December, in an effort to reinforce Fort King, the US Army directed Major Francis Dade to take two companies north from Fort Brooke (Tampa). As they marched, they were shadowed by the Seminoles. On December 28, the Seminoles attacked, killing all but two of Dades 110 men. That same day, a party led by the warrior Osceola ambushed and killed Thompson. Gaines Response In response, Clinch moved south and fought an inconclusive battle with the Seminoles on December 31 near their base in the Cove of the Withlacoochee River. As the war quickly escalated, Major General Winfield Scott was charged with eliminating the Seminole threat. His first action was to direct Brigadier General Edmund P. Gaines to attack with a force of around 1,100 regulars and volunteers. Arriving at Fort Brooke from New Orleans, Gaines troops began moving towards Fort King. Along the way, they buried the bodies of Dades command. Arriving at Fort King, they found it short on supplies. After conferring with Clinch, who was based at Fort Drane to the north, Gaines elected to return to Fort Brooke via the Cove of the Withlacoochee River. Moving along the river in February, he engaged the Seminoles in mid-February. Unable to advance and knowing there were no supplies at Fort King, he elected to fortify his position. Hemmed in, Gaines was rescued in early March by Clinchs men who had c ome down from Fort Drane (Map). Scott in the Field With Gaines failure, Scott elected to take command of operations in person. A hero of the War of 1812, he planned a large-scale campaign against the Cove which called for 5,000 men in three columns to strike the area in concert. Though all three columns were supposed to be in place on March 25, delays ensued and they were not ready until March 30. Traveling with a column led by Clinch, Scott entered the Cove but found that the Seminole villages had been abandoned. Short on supplies, Scott withdrew to Fort Brooke. As the spring progressed, Seminole attacks and the incidence of disease increased compelling the US Army to withdraw from key posts such as Forts King and Drane. Seeking to turn the tide, Governor Richard K. Call took the field with a force of volunteers in September. While an initial campaign up the Withlacoochee failed, a second in November saw him engage the Seminoles in the Battle of Wahoo Swamp. Unable to advance during the fighting, Call fell back to Volusia, FL. Jesup in Command On December 9, 1836, Major General Thomas Jesup relieved Call. Victorious in the Creek War of 1836, Jesup sought to grind down the Seminoles and his forces ultimately increased to around 9,000 men. Working in conjunction with the US Navy and Marine Corps, Jesup began to turn American fortunes. On January 26, 1837, American forces won a victory at Hatchee-Lustee. Shortly thereafter, the Seminole chiefs approached Jesup regarding a truce. Meeting in March, an agreement was reached which would allow the Seminoles to move west with their negroes, [and] their bona fide property. As the Seminoles came into camps, they were accosted by slave catchers and debt collectors. With relations again worsening, two Seminole leaders, Osceola and Sam Jones, arrived and led away around 700 Seminoles. Angered by this, Jesup resumed operations and began sending raiding parties into Seminole territory. In the course of these, his men captured the leaders King Philip and Uchee Billy. In an effort to conclude the issue, Jesup began resorting to trickery to capture Seminole leaders. In October, he arrested King Philips son, Coacoochee, after forcing his father to write a letter requesting a meeting. That same month, Jesup arranged for a meeting with Osceola and Coa Hadjo. Though the two Seminole leaders arrived under a flag of truce, they were quickly taken prisoner. While Osceola would die of malaria three months later, Coacoochee escaped from captivity. Later that fall, Jesup used a delegation of Cherokees to draw out additional Seminole leaders so that they could be arrested. At the same time, Jesup worked to build a large military force. Divided into three columns, he sought to force the remaining Seminoles south. One of these columns, led by Colonel Zachary Taylor encountered a strong Seminole force, led by Alligator, on Christmas Day. Attacking, Taylor won a bloody victory at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee. As Jesups forces united and continued their campaign, a combined Army-Navy force fought a bitter battle at Jupiter Inlet on January 12, 1838. Forced to fall back, their retreat was covered by Lieutenant Joseph E. Johnston. Twelve days later, Jesups army won victory nearby at the Battle of Loxahatchee. The following month, leading Seminole chiefs approached Jesup and offered to stop fighting if given a reservation in southern Florida. While Jesup favored this approach, it was declined by the War Department and he was ordered to continue fighting. As a large number of Seminoles had gathered around his camp, he informed them of Washingtons decision and quickly detained them. Tired of the conflict, Jesup asked to be relieved and was replaced by Taylor, who was promoted to brigadier general, in May. Taylor Takes Charge Operating with reduced forces, Taylor sought to protect northern Florida so that settlers could return to their homes. In an effort to secure the region, the constructed a series of small forts connected by roads. While these protected American settlers, Taylor used larger formations to seek out the remaining Seminoles. This approach was largely successful and fighting quieted during the latter part of 1838. In an effort to conclude the war, President Martin Van Buren dispatched Major General Alexander Macomb to make peace. After a slow start, negotiations finally produced a peace treaty on May 19, 1839 which allowed for a reservation in southern Florida. The peace held for a little over two months and ended when Seminoles attacked Colonel William Harneys command at a trading post along the Caloosahatchee River on July 23. In the wake of this incident, attacks and ambushes of American troops and settlers resumed. In May 1840, Taylor was granted a transfer and replaced with Brigadier General Walker K. Armistead. Increasing the Pressure Taking the offensive, Armistead campaigned in the summer despite the weather and threat of disease. Striking at Seminole crops and settlements, he sought to deprive them of supplies and sustenance. Turning over the defense of northern Florida to the militia, Armistead continued to pressure the Seminoles. Despite a Seminole raid on Indian Key in August, American forces continued the offensive and Harney conducted a successful attack into the Everglades in December. In addition to military activity, Armistead used a system of bribes and inducements to convince various Seminole leaders to take their bands west. Turning over operations to Colonel William J. Worth in May 1841, Armistead left Florida. Continuing Armisteads system of raids during that summer, Worth cleared the Cove of the Withlacoochee and much of northern Florida. Capturing Coacoochee on June 4, he used the Seminole leader to bring in those who were resisting. This proved partially successful. In November, US troops attacked into the Big Cypress Swamp and burned several villages. With fighting winding down in early 1842, Worth recommended leaving the remaining Seminoles in place if they would remain on an informal reservation in southern Florida. In August, Worth met with the Seminole leaders and offered final inducements to relocate. Believing that the last Seminoles would either move or shift to the reservation, Worth declared the war to be over on August 14, 1842. Taking leave, he turned command over to Colonel Josiah Vose. A short time later, attacks on settlers resumed and Vose was ordered to attack the bands that were still off the reservation. Concerned that such action would have a negative effect on those complying, he requested permission not to attack. This was granted, though when Worth returned in November he ordered key Seminole leaders, such as Otiarche and Tiger Tail, brought in and secured. Remaining in Florida, Worth reported in early 1843 that the situation was largely peaceful and that only 300 Seminoles, all on the reservation, remained in the territory. Aftermath During operations in Florida, the US Army suffered 1,466 killed with the majority dying of disease. Seminole losses are not known with any degree of certainty. The Second Seminole War proved to be the longest and costliest conflict with a Native American group fought by the United States. In the course of the fighting, numerous officers gained valuable experience which would serve them well in the Mexican-American War and the Civil War. Though Florida remained peaceful, authorities in the territory pressed for the full removal of the Seminoles. This pressure increased through the 1850s and ultimately led to the Third Seminole War (1855-1858).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Learning and Development of Human Resource Management - Essay Example As employees make day-to-day decisions, it is very important that the decisions they will make are based on the DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s principles. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s principles are a vital inclusion to the induction program for the new recruit, as he or she will also need to make decisions in the future. In order to give the new recruit an idea of his or her jobÃ¢â¬â¢s significance to the bigger picture, the jobÃ¢â¬â¢s place according to the organizational structure. The place of the job in fulfilment of a bigger objective, when it is shown will give significance to the individual goal a new recruit has in fulfilment of his or her own job. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies as regards health, safety and environment should be included in the induction programme. This could include the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy as regards requirements for medical examinations and provisions when employees acquire illnesses. Apart from the health, rules and policies about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s work environment should be included. These rules, especially about safety in using certain equipments should be clearly given to new recruits. Also, serious actions that the management will take when employees violate safety rules which could jeopardize the safety of other employees should be included. When there are accidents, emergency procedures should be part of the induction programme in order to provide the new recruit knowledge that will aid him or her in times of emergency or accidents within the work environment. Disney should include in its induction programme the clear set of duties and requirements of the job that the new recruit should fulfil. By making clear the demands of the job, the new recruit will know up to what extend he or she will be expected to perform, and what to perform. Apart from the duties, the number of work hours required for a certain job should also be
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Business Driven Technology - Research Paper Example In the modern era, two popular business driven technologies are social networks and e-commerce. These technologies are considerably transforming the retail industry (Mercier et al., 2012). Based on this aspect, the paper describes the way in which these technologies have transformed the retail industry and also provides example of two companies that have applied them in the businesses. How Social Networks is Transforming Retail Industry The proliferation of social media is transforming the way people connect with each other and how they make purchasing decisions. As the channels for sales have increased and boundaries between them are disappearing, consumers are in higher requirement of combining brand experience. Due to social networking, consumers are more empowered and influential than before. Through social networking, they can easily compare prices, review productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality and evaluate the opinions of other customers which facilitate to shape the products and services of retail companies. The retail industry is already exploiting the social media for the purpose of marketing and commerce. The social media trends are forcing the industry in the direction of individual oriented marketing approach from retailers comprising components such as social commerce, real time marketing and supply chain collaborations. Essentially, this approach is subjected to transaction history of customers in combination with pertinent social networking behaviors. Social networking is starting to play an essential role in the associated retail experience. The retail shopping experience is facilitating to target individual customers (Symphony Teleca Corp., 2013). Social Media Strategies of Walmart Walmart is an international retail company which provides general merchandise products and groceries. The following figure demonstrates the SWOT analysis of one of the largest retail chains, Walmart. Walmart has learnt regarding the management of social networking in its business. The company faced several challenges due to controversial commercial activities and hence, it has utilized the social media for promoting the brand. For example, in the year 2008, the company introduced Ã¢â¬Ëcheckoutblog.comÃ¢â¬â¢ which features the employees of the company. They provided their valuable opinions regarding the product varieties of Walmart and also gave supportive recommendations. It helped to develop a positive image of the company for large audience. Apart from this, Walmart also sponsored a blog named Ã¢â¬ËEleven MomsÃ¢â¬â¢. This blog has rapidly become a large community where women consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ converse subjects about motherhood, health products and budgeting (Barker, 2013). Walmart has attempted to leverage the technological tendencies of social networking by investing in mobile marketing services. For instance, in 2011, Walmart had acquired a social networking technology company namely Kosmix. This acquisition is essentially intended to utilize the monitoring application and to enlarge the online business. The Walmart program for iPhone delivers guidance to the customers while shopping electronic products, reviewing products and placing orders. These social media services are quite convenient and enjoyable for the present generation of customers (Barker, 2013). How Electronic Commerce is Transforming Retail Industry The other important business driven technology
Friday, January 24, 2020
a) Through the Utilitarian perspective, Bedau is a firm believer in the removal of capital punishment; Bedau thinks that no reason is good enough justify the more severe punishment like death penalty on the moral ground, and no evidence of deterrence and prevention is sufficient enough to support the retribution of justice to keep capital punishment. Bedau have raised several arguments direct to the issue of death penalty: The morality of self-defense and death penalty; the efficiency prevention and the deterrence through capital punishment; then finally the inequity treatment towards the racially disadvantaged and poor. Bedau does not believe in justifying capital punishment as self-defense on the moral ground just to avoid further killing of innocent victims. (Bedau CC Pg 406) Self-defense is only justifiable when an aggression is in present with violence, and lives are at risk without any alternate solution to neutralize it. However, in the case of hostile situation there is always more option other than kill or get killed; there is always the third option of running away before engaging in violent acts. (Bedau CC Pg 406) Only when lives are being threatened with the probability death, should the extreme measure of lethal force be applied to the immediate scene. (Bedau CC Pg 406) In the case of execution, there is no immediate harm posting towards any life at the time, along with alternative solution being available, the argument of capital punishment being justify as self-defense is simply not plausible. (Bedau CC Pg407) Capital punishment supposedly is serving as social utility to prevent the convicted to commit crime again and lowering the chance of others to commit the same crime, but Bedau argues otherwise. (Bedau CC... ...would choose to commit crime to make that dangerous money to seek for that thrill as stick up man, and getting away with it. (Katz CC Pg 316) Katz used the example of John Allen to make his point. All John Allen ever wanted was the thrill of being a stick up man; he never enjoyed pimping though the money was good. The record of his behavior shows that he would never stop robbing others for the thrill of living that identity to stick up. John Allen gave up the less dangerous career of pimping, chose the more dangerous route of drug dealing and robbing. (Katz CC Pg 317) By then we can see that crime is a choice, socio-economic factors doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always come into play but more about what character the individual wants to be. After all, the crimes committed cannot be blame on the capitalism and poverty, but the individual themselves; whom the justice should punish.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
I have been observing the political events of many countries as they unfold. Among the most fascinating of all was that in Kenya, a country in Africa which drew attention of the whole world after being highlighted as a result of the post election violence. I watched the campaign rallies as they were captured by the TV stations that were mainly dominated by three political parties; the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), the Party of National Unity (PNU) and Orange Democratic Movement of Kenya (ODM Ã¢â¬â K). I then focused on the whole country as a social system and finally narrowed down my observation to the close competitors who eyed for the presidential seat( http://video. google. com/videoplay? docid=-8434875422533573659 ) This paper examines all my observations as pertaining to the above highlighted situation through Ã¢â¬Ëa sociologist eyes'. As I watched the campaign rallies, I noticed that among the major political parties, there were common agenda. This were poverty reduction, job creation, fight against tribalism and inequality. In my quest to know more about the reason behind having common agendas, I realized that this country was stratified into different groups based on tribes, religious background and economic status. Economically, there were two major groups, the poor and the rich. The poor blamed the rich for accumulating large amounts of wealth through corrupt deals. They pointed out some major scandals that led to poor economic growth which resulted to increased poverty in the country. Examples of such corruption scandal include the Ã¢â¬Å"golden bergÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Anglo leasingÃ¢â¬ . The poor claimed that they were exploited by the rich, a situation that they said led to marginalization of some people and widened the gap between rich and the poor. The rich were supporting the political regime that existed at that time and they supported President Mwai Kibaki whom they said was the best president that people should support if they intend to achieve a high economic growth rate. Of course these were the owners of means of production and they intended to maximize on increasing their wealth. The poor were supporting Mr. Odinga who unveiled his plan to reduce poverty and inequality Ã¢â¬â something that the wealthy class in the country termed as a threat to investment( http://video. google. com/videoplay? docid=-4385739074127652954 ) These two groups divided the country's population into two antagonistic groups and initiated conflict between themselves. The campaign took a different dimension when two tribes in this country came came out to out do each other and muscle out their way to compeat for the prestigious political position, the presidency. These tribes included Kikuyu and the Luo(http://video. google. com/videoplay? docid=6778777698786778125) As a result a debate for introduction of Ã¢â¬Å"Majimbo systemÃ¢â¬ what can be referred to a Federal government came up. The two groups were once in another conflict since those behind PNU did not support a Majimbo government while those behind ODM and ODM -Kenya did( http://video. google. com/videoplay? docid=-5553237563976614777&q=kenya+politics+on+tv-+kibaki+and+raila&total=22&start=10&num=10&so=2&type=search&plindex=5&hl=en . As the election neared, another conflict came up. This time round, it was the Muslim community versus the Christian community where the Muslims wanted to get freedom to exercise their Sharia Laws. They claimed that they were never given freedom like the Christians who are the majority in the country. The Muslims therefore chose to support the ODM leader, Raila who had promised to address their grievances. The Christians rejected Mr. Raila Ã¢â¬Ës proposal and threatened to demand their Christian laws to be enacted into state laws if the Muslims were given that Ã¢â¬Å"Special treatmentÃ¢â¬ ( http://video. google. om/videoplay? docid=-1185250696841707886 This reminded me of the social conflict theory which holds that no society can exist without conflict (http://www. allfreeessays. com/student/Consensus_Conflict_Perspectives_in_social_theory. html ) As I watched the political campaigns, it was clear that these political leaders wanted to create a positive image of themselves in order to win many votes. In the Ã¢â¬Å"Front stageÃ¢â ¬ as Erving Goffman calls it in his theory of impression management or dramatical approach to social interaction, they gave all sorts of good promises. They promised to create jobs, reduce poverty, fight tribalism and inequality. In the Ã¢â¬Å"backstageÃ¢â¬ they would go to their tribes and call for their support, promise their tribes how they would benefit more than the other Kenyans and how they will appoint people from their tribes in government offices, something which was contrary to what they were promising the citizens in general. Challenging each other in political arenas and their respective credentials further worsened the relationship between the Ã¢â¬Å"actorsÃ¢â¬ When chaos erupted in the country and things seemed to run out of control, the former UN Secretary General, MR. Koffi Annan together with Graca Machele and Benjamin Mkapa led Mediation talks. The two political leaders, Mr. Odinga and President Kibaki appeared in Televisions as a way to inform the Kenyans that they were not enemies and were working together to put things in place. This was just a Ã¢â¬Å"front stageÃ¢â¬ since later on they both accused each other for what was happening in the country and clearly brought out a good picture of the Ã¢â¬Ëback stage'. These kind of actions by Mr. Odinga and President Kibaki is what Goffman said was analogously equated to theoretical drama. In this case, Mr. Odinga and President Kibaki together with their close supporters were the actors while Kenyans became the audience. This is the theory of symbolic interaction ism(Herman N, Reynolds L, pp. 76) Kenya is a society that is made up of individuals and groups of people who interact with each other and espouse a sense of Ã¢â¬Ëwe feeling'. They share many things in common including laws, the presidency among others and they all work together to improve their welfare and the country as a whole. Within the system there are sub systems which include political system, religious system, education and economic system among others. All these have a function to perform in order to ensure the social system functions properly. It is important to note that all societies consist of social structures which play different roles but must depend on one another. In the case for Kenya, the disputed election results led to chaos. This paralyzed all sectors of the economy. Many families were forced to break especially where the Luo intermarried with the Kikuyu. This was a state of anarchy and anomie that led to high levels of insecurity and deaths of thousands of innocent Kenyans. All learning institutions were closed down churches were burnt down and in general there was social disorganization in the country. All structures that bond Kenya as a society were weakened and if it were not for the mediation talks led by the international society Kenya would have been torn apart. I observed it and the theory of structural functionalism crossed my mind. According to the structural functionalism school of thought, any society comprises of social structures. These social structures play specialized and important functions that bind the members of the society together. (Robinson W, pp 314)
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is often considered a hereditary disease. According to the National Mental Health Association (2001) a specific genetic link to bipolar disorder has not been found. Studies show that 80 to 90 percent of those who suffer from bipolar disorder have relatives with some form of depression (NIMH, 2001). Bipolar disorder is a mental illness involving one or more episodes of serious mania and depression which causes individuals to feel an euphoric type high or feeling really low. Over 2.5 million people in America have bipolar disorder. This disorder usually occurs during adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life. Although, young children can be diagnosedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In order to diagnose an individual with a certain bipolar disorder, an individual would have to have signs and symptoms that are listed in the criteria of mania, depressive, mixed, or hypomaniac episodes. According to the DSM-IV criteria, Ã¢â¬Å"Mania episodes Ã¢â¬Å" are distinctive periods of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least one week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary) ( Keck McElroy, 2002 ). During the period of mood disturbance, three or more of the following symptoms have persisted ( fur if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree: inflated self-esteem, racing thoughts, more talkative, easily distracted, increase in goal-directed activity, and excessive involvement in activities that have high potential for painful consequences.Ã¢â¬ Manic episode can lead to troubled relationships, poor school/job performance, harm of self and others and problems with an individuals social life. The second type of episode is called Major Depressive Episode, which symptoms must have been present five or more times during a two week period and show a change of usability to function as previously. Symptoms consist of being depressed nearly everyday, decrease in interest or activities, dramatic weight loss, insomnia or hypersomnia,Show MoreRelatedBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Bipolar DisorderÃ¢â¬ Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness, which involves hypomanic episodes, which are changes in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s usual mood. Originally, Bipolar Disorder was called manic depression because it does share similar symptoms with people diagnosed with depression. Bipolar Disorder is a severe condition because it can cause mania, which then causes hallucinations and paranoid rage. (Bipolar Disorder) Bipolar Disorder is classified into two categories, bipolar type 1 and bipolar type 2. BipolarRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBipolar disorder is an often devastating mental illnesses, with high emotional, social and economic impact on the lives of patients and family members [Jin and McCrone, 2015; Miller et al., 2014]. In recent decades, there has been significant progress in developing diagnostic methods for reliably diagnosing severe bipolar disorder (bipolar disorder type I) and some related bipolar Ã¢â¬Å"spectrumÃ¢â¬ disorders (bipolar type II disorder), and there has also been recent progress in identifying some of the geneticRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBipolar Disorder Definition Bipolar Disorder is an increasingly common mood disorder that effects millions of people worldwide. In order to understand the plight of any psychiatric patient suffering from this ailment or to be prepared to treat this disease, it is pertinent to first fully understand what this mental disorder truly is. The first misconception surrounding bipolar disorder is that it is just one disease, contrarily it can be divided into two different sub categories. The National InstituteRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction/Overview of Condition Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness (SMI) characterized by dramatic mood Ã¢â¬Å"swingsÃ¢â¬ between manic and depressed states. In their manic states, individuals experience an abnormally elevated mood characterized by extreme, grandiose gestures and ideas, inflated self-esteem, lack of sleep, constant talking, distractibility, poor judgement, and even aggression (Griggs). Individuals can be characterized as having either a hypomanic episode or a manic episodeRead MoreBipolar And Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Bipolar robs you of that which is you. It can take from you the very core of your being and replace it with something that is completely opposite of who and what you truly areÃ¢â¬ (A. Reyan 2015). Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that alters a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, they can never go back to who they were before. Ã¢â¬Å"It is estimated that more than 10 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorderÃ¢â¬ (everydayhealth.com 2015). Bipolar disorder is broken down into two types; bipolar I and bipolar II disorderRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBipolar disorder has been gaining more and more attention over the last few years. With shootings on the rise, or at least the publicity of them, people are often pointing their fingers at mental diseases including bipolar disorder. An ongoing issue regarding mental illnesses, however, is the population has failed to fully understand what they truly are, the symptoms, and how to treat them. Bipolar disorder, which is commonly referred to as manic-depressive illness, is a disorder within the brainRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly swing from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. Bipolar disorder more commonly develops in older teenagers and young adults; it can appear in children as 6. The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown; there are two types of this disease: Types of the bipolar disorder: People with bipolarRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBipolar Disorder Research Paper What is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar Disorder is an increasingly common mood disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. In order to understand the plight of any psychiatric patient suffering from this ailment or to be prepared to treat this disease, it is pertinent to first understand what this mental disorder truly is. The first misconception surrounding bipolar disorder is that it is just one disease, contrarily it can be divided into two different sub categoriesRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar )1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesManic depression, also known as Bipolar Disorder is not your normal up and down mood change; itÃ¢â¬â¢s not like what most people experience, getting a little sad and getting over it. Instead it is extreme mood swing that Ã¢â¬Å"usually going from EXTREMLY happy to EXTREMLY angryÃ¢â¬ also include emotional highs and lows such as, depression and mania. Mood changes can happen as little as a few times a year or as often as several times a week; it depends on the person and thei r environment. At times, you feel veryRead MoreBipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar